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Accueil > Research at CFEE > Axes and research programs > Theme 2. Materialities, written cultures, and oral history

Writing of History and writing practices in the Horn of Africa : strata, intersections, openings

Among African states, Ethiopia is a good example of a country that thinks of its national, religious, cultural, and linguistic History over a long period of time. Nowadays, all Ethiopian -national and regional- discourses regarding identity try to argue that they find their roots in a distant and ‘legendarised’ past. As such, they follow a long-time trend (the kings David and Solomon are the self-proclaimed ancestors of Ethiopian Christian dynasties since almost one thousand years) that regained importance at the end on the XIXth century when Ethiopia needed to show the world that it was a fully-fledged Nation with a past that could be used against western imperialist discourses. The discourse of the Orthodox Christian and imperial Nation-State has long been the only one available, leaving aside the History of many other populations living in the current ethnofederal Ethiopia. The transformation of the State’s structure entailed the emergence of many thoughts and analyses regarding centres and peripheries andthe publication of new historiographies, in the international scientific community as well as within Ethiopian communities (as can be seen from the fact that more and more monographs relating local and regional History are being published). In this context, we also find (usually idealised) re-written versions of the past that are based on old historical works and insist on legendary and/or identity features. These historiographies additionally do not take into account the complexity of Ethiopian societies’ structure. To be a historian in Ethiopia usually means that you have to deal with censorship, political correctness, race for primacy, communitarianism, nationalism, and heritage making to meet the current issues. Ethiopian historians are, of course, affected the most by all this, and working on Medieval or Modern times requires tremendous devotion and commitment. It is thus crucial to mobilise in favour of the possibility to work freely, disseminate outcomes, and train new researchers. While the present intellectual climate is difficult among the Ethiopian society, asignificant collective scientific effort has been made to open up Ethiopian historiographies during the past decade. ‘Ethiopianists’ still need to master a number of skills necessary to the understanding of ancient written sources (the knowledge of Ge’ez, Arabic, and Amharic) and carry out fieldwork (the only way to understand the complexity of the Horn of Africa). The members of this research team have managed to combine written sources and fieldwork by expanding their research interests and creating new collaborations. From this viewpoint, the CFEE has played a key role, in partnership with the CEMAf (now IMAf), by supporting projects like the ACI-Espaces et Territoires (2003-06), the ANR Cornafrique (2007-10), as well as numerous other international and interdisciplinary collaborations. Many researchers work together in order to interpret the various discourses based on sources andproduced by a local historiography eager to give a new meaning to ancient material. For several years, the History seminar of the CFEE has gathered historians, archaeologists, anthropologists, philologists and linguists to discuss their current research on a monthly basis.
Members of this team have organised many joint scientific events. Many collective panels in conferences (ICES, ECAS, conference on Christian and Muslim manuscripts in December 2014 in Paris), seminars and workshops have been organised. For more than ten years, joint projects have been carried out in order to update the corpus of documents (search for new texts and manuscripts in conservation places, monasteries, churches, mosques, and private archives). There are also joint publications (the issue of North-East African Studies 2011 on old Ethiopian archives ; Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies : An Introduction, 2014 ; or the forthcoming collective monograph about the site of Yemrehanna Krestos in Lasta ; for instance). It is important to keep on working together for a better understanding of the Ethiopian pasts and their diversity. The main interests of this research program revolves around the following themes and goals, all dealing with the ways in which written sources are produced, as well as the participants involved in/contexts of written materials dissemination :

Writing of administrative and legal documents
In Ethiopian corpus, there are many administrative documents produced by Christian or Muslim societies. Paying attention to this type of documents raises many fundamental questions regarding the access to written materials in Ethiopian societies, the role of written material as proofs, and the introduction of the use of Amharic as a written language (in the case of Christian societies) or of the Ajami script (in the case of Muslim societies). Our aim is to analyse the waysto access legal and economic power as well as related social structures. Our approach is enriched by comparisons with other African cases and collaboration with medievalists working on the West or on other cultural areas.

The making or archives
In order to locate, describe, and analyse the existing literature, the work on archives in crucial. Researchers who have been appointed to the CFEE for the past years as well as researchers associated to this institution always favour fieldwork and the knowledge of textual corpus kept in Ethiopian religious and patrimonial institutions (Wion, 2012). An online edition tool, Ethiopian Manuscript Archives (EMA), has been created as a result of this approach. The program ‘Endangered Archives’ of the British Libraryadditionally funded projects for the digitalisation of collections of Christian and Muslim manuscripts in Ethiopia. The project ErC Open Jerusalem focuses on Ethiopian documents partly produced and entirely kept outside of Ethiopia. Globally, our aim is to question the way societies, institutions, or families organise the remnants of their past. The inventory, description, and accessibility of documents identified as ‘archives’ must continue and go hand in hand with a reflection regarding the way collections have been constituted.

The role of oralities
The role of orality in writing practices is always an important issue, especially since the theoretical literature on the matter has significantly increased in recent years. Many genres exist : formal oral texts that carry a historical message, secular or religious songs, comments on written texts, etc. All these questions are dealt with in a forthcoming joint publication initiated by German anthropologists. Once again, the importance of the conservation of and access to collected sources in accordance with the informants’ rights should be emphasised in this case.

Reconsideration of regional histories of the Christian kingdom
A recent movement focusing on the analysis of regional histories allows us to consider the formation of political, religious and economic powers in the Horn of Africa in Medieval and Modern times from a new perspective.Begwana/Lasta (see theAnnales d’Éthiopie24 for example), Damot (PhD of A. Bouanga defended in 2014), Ifat (works of F.X. Fauvelle, B. Hirsch, Deresse Aynatchew, and A. Chekroun), Begamder and the area of Aksum (A. Wion), Gojjam (M. Herman, C. Bosc-Tiessé, and A. Wion), for instance, can now be conceived as entities which have their own specific historiographies and interact with other areas. This new perspective on marginal forces is consequently preferred to a global historiography of the Christian kingdom, though the latter is still interesting to study.

Connected histories
Recent research focuses on the (sometimes long-time) relationships between different areas of the Horn of Africa : relationships with Egypt (work of E. Fritsch ; the Coptic-Arabic and Ethiopian historiography of R. Seignobos, M.-L. Derat), with Nubia (R. Seignobos), with the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea (PhD thesis of Sana Mirza ; work of A. Chekroun), and with Jerusalem (S. Ancel for the Opening Jerusalem Archives - ErC project). The circulation of persons and ideas across different areas, observable through texts as well as artworks or commercial products, remains an inexhaustible topic of research that requires efforts in terms of knowledge acquisition and fieldwork mastery. To exchange information and expertise within a team whose members have various skills is a real asset for this kind of research ; it allows us to go beyond the boundaries of individual disciplines.

Understanding and deconstruction of the modern strata of Christian historiography (1870-1930)
Paradoxically, activities related tothe creation and modification of old corpus of documents have increased at the beginning of the XXth century. Regional historians such as the alaqa Takla Iyasus in Gojjam and then the scriptorium of Menelik (1882-1913) have produced texts that review, transform and update Ethiopian History. To sort out and understand this particular moment of the Ethiopian historiography (C. Bosc-Tiessé, M. Herman, B. Hirsch) is necessary to better comprehend the previous stratum.
Finally, the important question of the accessibilityof corpus of documents, including the the digitalisation of written and oral heritage, the edition of texts, as well as descriptive inventories and tools, remains a key one that requires our collective attention.

Follow the news of this research program on the blog of the CFEE :

Adankpo Olivia (2015 forthcoming), “Écriture hagiographique et commémoration des saints dans les monastères eustathéens du nord de l’Éthiopie (XVe siècle)” in Bottazi Marialuisa (ed.), La società monastica nei secoli VII-XII. Sentieri di ricerca, Trieste.
— (to be published on line second quarter 2015), “Écriture et réécriture hagiographiques du gadla Ēwostātēwos” in Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge, 127, n°2.
— La genèse du réseau monastique eustathéen. Saints, monastères et pouvoirs dans les territoires du nord de l’Éthiopie chrétienne (XIVe- XVIe siècles), dissertation being prepared since October 2011 under the guidance of B. Hirsch, University of Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne.

Ancel Stéphane, (forthcoming) : “A Muslim prophecy justifying the conversion of Ethiopian Muslims to Christianity during Yohannəs IV’s reign ? A text found in a manuscript in East Tigray” in Journal of Northeast African Studies.
— (forthcoming) : “Travelling books : Change of owner and library in Ethiopian manuscript culture” in Proceeding of the International Workshop : The Second(ary) Life of Manuscripts, Hamburg University, Centre for the Study of Manuscript Cultures, July 12, 2013.

Ancel Stéphane with M. Krzyzanowska, 2014, “Early twentieth-century theological controversies in Ethiopia : The letter of Coptic Metropolitan Petros of 1904” inAethiopica, International Journal for Ethiopian and Eritrean Studies, vol. 17, 121-150.

Ancel Stéphane with D. Nosnitsin, 2014, “On the history of the Library of Maqdala : New findings” in Aethiopica, International Journal for Ethiopian and Eritrean Studies, 17, 90-95.

Ancel Stéphane with W. Smidt, 2013, “Legitimization of a pretender to the throne : A short Amharic-French biography of Haile Selassie I published in 1930", Annales d’Ethiopie, 28, 203-237.

Bouanga, A. 2014, Le royaume du Damot : enquête sur une puissance politique et économique de la Horn of Africa (xiiie siècle), Annales d’Éthiopie, 29, 27-58.

Bosc-Tiessé, Claire with Ewa Balicka-Witakowska, Alessandro Bausi & Denis Nosnitsin, 2015, “Ethiopic codicology” in Alessandro Bausi et al. (eds.) Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies. An Introduction, Hamburg, 154-174.

Bosc-Tiessé, Claire (to be published) “The circulation of Ethiopian manuscripts between Ethiopia, Egypt and Jerusalem and their reception in Old Regime France - The constitution of the collection of the French National Library up until the Revolution” in A. Delmas & A. Kebir (eds.), Philological encounters series of the Zukunftsphilologie Programme, Berlin ; paper presented at The discovery of writing : A history of European attitudes towards written cultures in America, Africa and Asia from the 16th to the 18th centuries, colloquium organized by A. Delmas, European University Institute, Florence, June 2012.
— 2014, “Christian and Islamic cultures of the Book in Ethiopia : An Impossible encounter ?”, introduction to the international workshop “Christian and Islamic Manuscripts of Ethiopia (12-20th cent.). A Comparative Approach”, BnF – National Library, Paris, 12-13 December 2014.
Bosc-Tiessé, Claire, 2014, “Qu’est-ce qu’un scriptorium en Ethiopie ? L’organisation du travail des copistes dans le royaume chrétien d’Ethiopie”, Scripta. An International Journal of Codicology and Palaeography, 7, 9-27.
— 2014, “Le site rupestre de Qorqor (Gar’āltā, Éthiopie) entre littérature et peinture. Introduction à l’édition de la Vie et des miracles de Saint Daniel de Qorqor et aux recherches en cours”, Afriques. Débats, méthodes et terrains d’histoire, 2014,
Bosc-Tiessé, Claire with Marie-Laure Derat, 2011, “Acts of writing and authority in Begwena and Lasta between the 15th and 18th century : A regional administration comes to light”, Northeast African Studies, 11/2, 85-110.

Chekroun, Amélie, 2013, "Le Futuh al-Habasa : écriture de l’histoire, guerre et société dans le Barr Sa’d ad-Dîn (Éthiopie, 16e siècle)", PhD dissertation , University of Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne.
— 2012, “Manuscrits, éditions et traductions du Futū al- Habaša : état des lieux”,Annales Islamologiques, 46, 2013.

Derat, M.L., 2013, “Censure et réécriture de l’histoire du roi Zar’a Ya’eqob (1434-1468). Analyse des deux versions de la ‘chronique’ d’un souverain éthiopien” in F.X. Fauvelle-Aymar & B. Hirsch (eds.), Les ruses de l’historien. Essais d’Afrique et d’ailleurs en hommage à Jean Boulègue, Paris : Karthala, 121-135.
— 2012, “Roi prêtre et Prêtre Jean : analyse de la vie d’un souverain éthiopien du xiie siècle, Yemrehanna Krestos”, Annales d’Éthiopie, 27, 127-143.
— 2010, “Les donations du roi Lālibalā : éléments pour une géographie du royaume chrétien d’Éthiopie au tournant du xiie et du xiiie siècle”, Annales d’Éthiopie, 25, 19-42.

Derat, M.L. with C. Bosc-Tiessé, E. Fritsch et Wadi Awad Abullif, 2010, “Les inscriptions arabes, coptes et guèzes des églises de Lālibalā”, Annales d’Éthiopie, 25, 43-53.

Deresse Ayenachew, 2014, “Evolution and Organisation of the Č̣äwa Military Regiments in Medieval Ethiopia”, Annales d’Éthiopie, 29, 83-95.
— 2011, “The Southern Interests of the Royal Court of Ethiopia in the Light of Bərbər Maryam’s Ge’ez and Amharic Manuscripts”, Northeast African Studies, 11(2), 43-58.

Fauvelle-Aymar F-X et Hirsch B., Espaces musulmans de la Corne de l’Afrique au Moyen-Âge, Annales d’Éthiopie hors-série, CFEE, Paris, 2011.

Fritsch, E., forthcoming, “The Catechesis on the Eucharistic Liturgy in the 15th century BnF Ethiopic Ms. d’Abbadie 66-66bis. Text, English version and liturgical commentary”, B. Groen, D. Galadza, N. Glibetić & G. Radle (eds.), Fifth International Congress of the Society of Oriental Liturgy, 9 – 14 June 2014, Saint Vladimir Orthodox Theological Seminary, New York.
— 2014, “The Preparation of the Gifts and the Pre-Anaphora in the Ethiopian Eucharistic Liturgy around 1100 AD” in B. Groen, D. Galadza, N. Glibetić & G. Radle (eds.), Rites and Rituals of the Christian East : Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of the Society of Oriental Liturgy, Beirut, Lebanon, 10-15 July, 2012, in Eastern Christian Studies, 22 (Leuven : Peeters Publishing House), 97-152.
— 2013, “Turning every day to Aksum Seyon unaware : King Zar’a Yā’eqob’s Kehedata Saytān identified in the first prayer of the day”, Annales d’Ethiopie, 28, 363-372.

Gadja, I. Yohannes Gebre Selassie & Hiluf Berhe, « Pre-Aksumite Inscriptions From Maqaer Ga’ewa, (Tigrai, Ethiopia) », Annales d’Éthiopie, 2009, vol. XXIV, p. 33-48.

Gadja, I. & Yohannes Gebre Selassie, « Pre-Aksumite Inscribed Incence Burner and Some Architectural Ornaments from Addi Akaweh (Tigrai, Ethiopia) », Annales d’Éthiopie, 2009, vol. XXIV, p. 49-61.

Habtamu Mengistie Tegegne Recordmaking, Recordkeeping and Landholding – Chanceries and Archives in Ethiopia (1700–1974). History in Africa, Available on CJO 2015 doi:10.1017/hia.2014.23

Kindene Endeg Mihretie, 2014, “Founded by, dedicated to and fighting about the Holy Savior : Rivalry in Waldəba as a microcosm of centuries-old doctrinal and regional factionalism within the Ethiopian Church”, Journal of Northeast African Studies, 14(1), 43-66.
— 2013, “The eighteen million Täwahədo victims of Martyr Saint Ädyam Sägäd Iyasu : Towards a better understanding of Lasta-Tigray defiance of the royal center of Gondarine Ethiopia, 1630s-1760s”, Aethiopica, International Journal of Ethiopian and Eritrean Studies, 16, 45-74.

Kropp, Manfred, forthcoming, “Rəstä Amba zä-Esraʾel. Ein Dokument über Erbbesitz des äthiopischen Königshauses (Esraʾel) auf und um Amba-Säl aus dem 16. Jhdt” in A. McColuum (ed.), Festschrift für Getatchew Haile, Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz.
— forthcoming, “Code-switching im Äthiopischen : eine Untersuchung des Gebrauchs verschiedener Sprachen in Rechts- und Wirtschaftsdokumenten des Mittelalters bis zum 19. Jhdt”, Fünftes Treffen der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Semitistik in der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Basel, 15.–17.02.2012.
— 2014, “…und sagen : ‘Er ist ein Ohr !’ Sprich : ‘Ein Ohr zum Guten für Euch !’ (Q 9,61). Synthetische Körperauffassung im Koran ? Über einige Körper(teil)bezeichnungen und ihre Bedeutungen. Ein Versuch unter teilweiser Einbeziehung der altarabischen Poesie” in K. Müller & A Wagner (eds.), Synthetische Körperauffassung im Hebräischen und den Sprachen der Nachbarkulturen, Münster : Ugarit Verlag, 185-222.
— 2014, “Lisān ʿarabiyy mubīn – ‘klares Arabisch’ ? oder : ‘offenbar Arabisch’, gar ‘geoffenbartes Arabisch’” in A. Rippin & R. Tottoli, Books and Written Culture of the Islamic World : Studies Presented to Claude Gilliot on the Occasion of His 75th Birthday. Islamicae Litterae : Scripta Claudio Gilliot Septuagesimum Quintum diem Natalem Celebranti Dicata, Leiden & Boston : Brill, 271-287.
— 2013, “Zwei Dokumente aus dem Archiv des äthiopischen Hofrichters liq Atqu (Erste Hälfte des 19. Jh in Gondar)” in P. Bruns (ed.), Orientalia Christiana. Festschrift für Hubert Kaufhold zum 70. Geburtstag, Heinz Otto Luthe. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 279-308.
— 2012, “Schriften und Sprachen im Kontakt : Sabäisch in Äthiopien und die ersten Zeugnisse der äthiopischen Sprache und Schrift” in Steffen Wenig (ed.), In kaiserlichem Auftrag – Die Deutsche Aksum Expedition 1906 unter Enno Littmann. Band 2 : Altertumskundliche Untersuchungen der DAE in Tigray/Äthiopien, Wiesbaden : Reichert, 323-337.
— 2012, “The good old law : Literacy and orality in the practice of Ethiopian Royal Law”, Folia Orientalia (Festschrift für Andrzej Zaborski), 49, 253-267.
— “Notes on preparing a critical edition of the Śərʿatä Mängəśt”,Northeast African Studies, 11(2), 111-140.

Mirza, Sana, An African scriptorium : The Qur’ans of Harar and their global milieu, dissertation in preparation under the supervision of B.F. Finbaar, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University.

Shiferaw Bekele, 2014, “Restructuring Weld Blundell’s ‘Royal Chronicles’” in A. Bausi, A. Gori and G. Lusini (eds.), Linguistic, Oriental and Ethiopian Studies in Memory of Paolo Marrassini. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz Verlag.
— “Lamentations of Abagaz Sä’una : A preliminary analysis of the chronicle of the last two decades of the 18th century” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Ethiopian Philology (Addis Ababa : Department of Linguistics of Addis Ababa University).

Yohannes Gebre Selassie, « Plague as a possible factor for the decline and collapse of the Aksumite Empire : a new interpretation », Ityopis, vol. 1, no. 1, 2011, p. 36-61.
— forthcoming, « New Data on ᵓGZ, son of King ḪRF : from a 3d century AD Unvocalized Gәᶜәz Inscription (Ḥәnzat, Tәgray), Annales d’Ethiopie, vol. 29.

Wion, A. forthcoming, “Abba Ləbsä Krəstos of Gonǧ-Səlalo : Sources for discussing religious identities in Goǧǧam (early 17th-century, Ethiopia)” in Festschrift to Getatchew Haile [working title], Aethiopistische Forschungen, Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz.
— Given to the editor : « The Golden Gospels and Chronicle of Aksum at Aksum Ṣeyon Church : The photographs taken by Theodor v. Lüpke (1906) », in : S. Wenig (dir.), In kaiserlichem Auftrag : Die Deutsche Aksum-Expedition 1906 unter Enno Littmann, vol. 3.
— 2012, Paradis pour une reine : Le monastère de Qoma Fasilädäs, Éthiopie, XVIIe siècle, Paris : Publications de la Sorbonne.
— 2013 : « L’histoire d’un vrai faux traité philosophique (Ḥatatā Zar’a Yā‘eqob et Ḥatatā Walda Ḥeywat). Épisode 1. Le temps de la découverte. De l’entrée en collection à l’édition scientifique (1852-1904) », Afriques. Débats, méthodes et terrains d’histoire,
— 2013, « L’histoire d’un vrai faux traité philosophique (Ḥatatā Zar’a Yā‘eqob et Ḥatatā Walda Ḥeywat). Épisode 2 : Le temps de la démystification et la traversée du désert (de 1916 aux années 1950) », Afriques. Débats, Méthodes et terrains d’histoire,
— 2012, “Onction des malades, funérailles et commémorations : pour une histoire des textes et des pratiques liturgiques en Éthiopie chrétienne”, Afriques, uploaded on 17 January 2012,